Coma causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [3] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S.[4]


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Heart attack, Heart failure,Malignant hypertension, Shock, Ventricular fibrillation, Very low blood pressure,Cardiac dysrhythmias, Endocarditis, Rheumatic Fever
Chemical / poisoning 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine poisoning, 2-Methyl-4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid poisoning ,Acetone poisoning, Acetylene poisoning , Ackee Fruit Food poisoning , Acrolein poisoning,Acute Chemical poisoning -- Varnish makers' and painters' Naptha, Acute xylene poisoning,Aftershave poisoning, Alcohol intoxication, Aldrin poisoning, Alicyclic hydrocarbons poisoning, Allethrin poisoning, Amanita polypyramis poisoning, Amidithion poisoning,Amiton poisoning, Ammonium Bifluoride, Ammonium Sulfamate poisoning, Anchovy (clupeotoxin) poisoning , Aniline poisoning, Antifreeze poisoning, Amyl Alcohol, Aristolochic acid,Arsenic, Apricot seed poisoning, Azinfos-methyl poisoning, Azinphos-ethyl poisoning,Azinphosmetile poisoning, Azothoate poisoning, Benoxafos poisoning, Bentazon poisoning,Benzene toxicity, Beta ketothiolase deficiency, Bird cherry seed poisoning, Bitter almond seed poisoning, Black henbane poisoning, Black jetbead poisoning, Blue-ringed octopus poisoning, Boric Acid, Box Jellyfish poisoning, Bromide toxicity, Bromoform poisoning,Butyl Alcohol poisoning, Camphor, Cannabinoids, Carbamate insecticide poisoning,Carbaryl, Carbinoxamine, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbon Tetrachloride,Carbophenothion, Ceftazidime, Celandine poisoning, Cherry laurel seed poisoning, Cherry seed poisoning,Chlophedianol toxicity, Chloral hydrate poisoning, Chlorate salts poisoning, Chlorfenvinphos poisoning, Chloromethane poisoning, Chloropyrifos poisoning, Chlorpyrifos poisoning,Chokecherry seed poisoning, Christmas Cherry poisoning, Chromium poisoning, Clupeotoxism,Cobra poisoning, Cocaine, Common poppy poisoning, Cone shell poisoning, Copper toxicity, Coumaphos poisoning, Cresols poisoning, Cresylic acid poisoning, Cyanide poisoning, Cytarabine, Daphne poisoning, Darvocet overdose, Death Angel poisoning, Death Camas poisoning, Demethyldiazepam toxicity, Demeton-O-methyl poisoning, Demeton-S-methyl poisoning, Demeton-S-methylsulphon poisoning, Devil's trumpet poisoning, Dialifos poisoning,Diazinon poisoning, Dichloralphenazone poisoning, Dichloronaphthoquinone poisoning,Dichlorvos poisoning, Dicrotophos poisoning, Dieldrin poisoning, Diethylene Glycol poisoning, Dimethoate poisoning, Dimethyl Phthalate poisoning, Dinitrocresol poisoning,Dinitrophenol poisoning, Di-n-Octyl phathalate poisoning, Dioxathion poisoning, Disulfoton poisoning, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Endothion poisoning, English Ivy poisoning, English Laurel poisoning,Ethchlorvynol poisoning, Ethion poisoning, Ethoate-methyl poisoning, Ethoprophos poisoning, Ethylene Glycol poisoning, Ethyl-guthion poisoning, Etrimfos poisoning,Eucalyptus Oil poisoning, Fenchlorphos poisoning, Fenitrothion, Fensulfothion, Fenthion poisoning, Fire cherry poisoning, Fonophos poisoning, Formaldehyde poisoning, Formothion poisoning, Funnel Web spider poisoning, Hair Bleach, Hair Dye, Heptenophos poisoning,Hexachlorobutadiene poisoning, Hyacinth bean poisoning, Imazapyr poisoning, Iodofenphos poisoning,Ioxilan,Japanese pagoda tree poisoning, Jessamine poisoning, Jimsonweed poisoning,1,2-Dichloromethane, Cadmium, Degreasing solvents, Dichloroacetylene, Diethylene glycol, Ethylene glycol ethers, Gasoline, Germanium, Glue solvent vapors, Heavy metals, Herbicide, Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, Hydrocarbons, Lead, Lantana poisoning,Lead poisoning, Lobelia poisoning,Loquat poisoning, Lupine poisoning, Mercury,Methanol, Methemoglobin-producing agents, Mayapple poisoning, Mecarbam,Mephenoxalone,Metaldehyde, Methacrifos, Methamidophos, Methaqualone, Methidathion,Methyl Bromide, Methyprylon, Mexican tea poisoning, Nabilone, Naked brimcap poisoning,Omethoate poisoning, Organophosphate insecticide poisoning, Oxydeprofos poisoning,Oxydisulfoton poisoning, Parathion poisoning, Pentachlorophenol poisoning, Phorate poisoning, Phosalone poisoning, Phosdrin poisoning, Phosmet poisoning, Phosphamidon poisoning, Phoxim poisoning, Phthalthrin poisoning,Pirimiphos-methyl, Poison hemlock poisoning, Polyethylene Glycol -- Low Molecular Weight, Primiphos methyl,Profenofos,Propoxur, Prothidathion poisoning, Prothoate poisoning, Pyrimidifen poisoning, Pyrimitate poisoning, Paint thinners, Paints, Paraquat ochratoxin A,Perchloroethylene, Platinum, Silicon compounds, Silver, Solvents,Styrene,Uranium, Quinalphos poisoning, Quintiofos poisoning, Ramelteon poisoning,Sardine poisoning (clupeotoxin), Selenious Acid, Slickhead poisoning (clupeotoxin), Sodium Monofluoroacetate, Sophamide, Sulfotep poisoning, Systemic monochloroacetate poisoning,Tapioca poisoning, Terbufos poisoning, Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate poisoning,Tetrahydrocannabinol, Tetramethrin poisoning, Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine poisoning,Thallium sulfate, Thiometon, Thornapple poisoning, Tolclofos methyl poisoning, [Toluene]],Thallium, Toluene, Trichloroethane, Trichloroethylene, Triazophos poisoning,Triazotion poisoning, Trichloroethane, Triclofos, Triethylene Glycol, Trifenfos,White snakeroot poisoning, Wild cherry seed poisoning, Wild Lima bean poisoning
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Articaine, Atropine, Iodixanol, Nelarabine, Oxaprozin, Pergolide
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine ACTH resistance, Addison's Disease, Diabetic coma, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor, Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma,Hyperparathyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypothyroidism, Insulinoma, Metastatic insulinoma,Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3, Thyroid gland failure, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy -- Addison disease only,Pituitary apoplexy, Congenital Hyperinsulinism, Hyperinsulinism due to glucokinase deficiency, Hyperinsulinism due to glutamodehydrogenase deficiency, Pheochromocytoma crisis
Environmental Altitude sickness, Comly syndrome, Dehydration, Heat stroke,Hyperbaric sickness, Hypothermia, Mountain sickness, Near-drowning, Suffocation,High altitude cerebral edema
Gastroenterologic End Stage Liver Failure, Hepatitis, Progressive familial intrahepatic Cholestasis 2, progressive familial intrahepatic Cholestasis 3, Hepatic encephalopathy
Genetic 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, Arginosuccinic aciduria, Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency,Carnitine deficiency (systemic), Carnitine transporter deficiency, Citrullinemia I,Citrullinemia II, Congenital Hyperinsulinism, Flavoprotein deficiency,Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, hereditary, Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency, hereditary, Fumarase deficiency, Glycine synthase deficiency, HMG-CoA lyase deficiency,Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, Hyperinsulinism due to glucokinase deficiency,Hyperinsulinism due to glutamodehydrogenase deficiency, Isovaleric Acidemia, Late onset Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency,Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency, Neonatal Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency,Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency, Fatal familial insomnia, Inborn urea cycle disorder, Methylmalonic acidemia, Methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria andcobalamin F, Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency, N-acetyl glutamate synthetase deficiency
Hematologic Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Bacterial:

Ehrlichiosis, Epidemic typhus, Melioidosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Septicemia,Streptococcal Group B invasive disease, Typhoid fever, Vancomycin resistant enterococcal bacteremia, Brain abscess, Cerebellar abscess, Cerebral abscess, Meningitis,Postoperative septicaemia


Herpes simplex encephalitis, Meningitis, Arbovirosis, Hendra Virus, HIV/AIDS,Kyasanur-Forrest disease, Lyssavirus, Rabies, Rift Valley Fever, Simian B virus infection, Togaviridae disease, Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, West nile encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Yellow fever, HHV-6 encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis,Western/Eastern/California encephalitis


Cryptococcal Meningitis


Chagas disease, Katayama fever, Malaria, Sleeping sickness (East African), Sleeping sickness (West African), Toxoplasmosis

Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, ADANE, African Sleeping sickness,Alzheimer's disease, Basedow's coma, Bing-Neel syndrome, Brain abscess, Brain cancer,Brain compression, Brain cyst, Brain death, Bristowe's syndrome, Brown-Symmers disease, Cataplexy, Cerebellar abscess, Cerebral abscess, Cerebral hemorrhage,Cerebral metastases, Concussion, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Cryptococcal Meningitis,Encephalitis, Encephalomyelitis, Epidural haemorrhage, Epilepsy, Fatal familial insomnia, Hashimoto's encephalitis, Familial type 1 hemiplegic migraine, Hemorrhagic shockand encephalopathy syndrome, Hepatic encephalopathy, HHV-6 encephalitis, High altitude cerebral edema, , Hypoxic encephalopathy, Intracerebral hematoma, Jamaican vomiting sickness, Japanese encephalitis, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, Meningoencephalitis,Narcolepsy, Persistent vegetative state, Pituitary apoplexy, Raised intracranial pressure, Acute Spinal cord injury, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subdural haemorrhage,Traumatic Brain Injury, Vanishing white matter leukodystrophy, Venezuelan equine encephalitis,Western/Eastern/California encephalitis, Westphal-Leyden ataxia, Chagas disease, Herpes simplex encephalitis, Carcinomatosis meningitis, Catatonia, Hydrocephalus
Nutritional / Metabolic Biotinidase deficiency, Hyperglycerolemia-juvenile form,Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome, Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder, Inborn Urea cycle disorder, Leucinosis, Maple syrup urine disease, Methylmalonic Acidemia, Methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria, cobalamin F, Vitamin B12 unresponsive methylmalonic aciduria, Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency,Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, N-acetyl glutamate synthetase deficiency,Periodic hyperlysinemia, Porphyria, Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, Group B, Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency, Uremia, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, Arginosuccinic aciduria,Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency, Carnitine deficiency (systemic), Carnitine transporter deficiency, Citrullinemia I, Citrullinemia II, Flavoprotein deficiency,Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, hereditary, Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency, hereditary, Fumarase deficiency, Glycine synthase deficiency, HMG-CoA lyase deficiency,Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, Isovaleric acidemia, Late onset Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Medium-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, Neonatal Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic Eclampsia, Pregnancy toxemia
Oncologic Brain cancer, Cerebral metastases, Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor,Insulinoma, Metastatic insulinoma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Acetylsalicylic Acid, Amitriptyline, Amlodipine, Antipsychotic drugs,Lorazepam overdose, Atropine, Baclofen, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepine, Bromazepam,Bupivacaine, Buprenorphine, Buspirone, Chlorpheniramine, Chlorpromazine,Cinnarizine, Clonazepam, Clonidine, Clotiapine, Codeine, Colchicine, Tricyclic antidepressant, Cyclobenzaprine, Cycloserine, Dantrolene, Meperidine (patient information), Deserpidine, Desipramine, Diamorphine, Diazepam, Diphenhydramine,Diphenidol, Disulfiram, Dothiepin, Efavirenz, Eszopiclone, Ether, Ethinamate,Felodipine, Flurazepam, Flunitrazepam, Gabapentin, Ganaxolone, General anaesthesia, Glutethimide, Haloperidol, Heroin, Hydroxyzine, Inhalational anaesthetics, Isoniazid, Isradipine, Acetaminophen, Aminoglycosides, Aminosalicylic acid, Amphotericin B, Aspirin, Bacitracin, Bismuth, Cefaloridine, Chloroform,Chlortetracycline, Cisplatin, Contrast agents, Cyclophosphamide, Cyclosporin,Ibuprofen, Lithium, Methicillin, Neomycin, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,Oxytetracycline, Polymyxin, Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, Rifampin,Sulphonamides, Trimethoprim, Levetiracetam, Levomepromazine, Lidocaine,Lofexidine, Lorazepam, Malathion, Medazepam, Meprobamate, Methadone,Methamphetamine, Methyldopa, Metoclopramide, Mianserin, Midazolam, Mirtazapine,Morphine, Nimodipine, Nitrates, Nitrazepam, Nitroglycerin, Nitrous oxide,Nortriptyline, Olanzapine, Opioid, Oxazepam, Oxycontin, Perazine, Percocet,Phencyclidine, Phenelzine, Phenobarbital, Phenothiazine, Pipothiazine, Pizotifen,Pramipexole, Prazepam, Pregabalin, Primidone, Prochlorperazine, Propanol,Propiomazine, Propofol, Quetiapine, Quinidine, Reserpine, Temazepam,Thiopentone, Tizanidine, Tolterodine, Topiramate, Tramadol, Triazolam,Trifluperidol, Vicodin, Vigabatrin, Xanax, Dilaudid,
Psychiatric Hysteria
Pulmonary Anoxemia, Asphyxia, Lung disease, Pulmonary embolism, Respiratory acidosis, Respiratory failure
Renal / Electrolyte Acid-Base Imbalance, Chronic kidney disease, End-stage renal disease,Hyperthermia, Hypocalcemia, Hypoglycemia,Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Hypoosmolality,Hypercalcemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypermagnesemia,Hypernatremia, Hyperosmolality, Hyperphosphatemia, Hypophosphatemia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Anaphylaxis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Head trauma, Skull fracture
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Amyloidosis, Anticholinergic syndrome,Electrocution, Fat embolism, Graft-versus-host disease, Malignant Buotonneuse fever,Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Oculoleptomeningeal Amyloidosis,postoperative Hemorrhage,Postoperative septicaemia, Reye's syndrome, Self-induced water intoxication and schizophrenic disorders syndrome, Serotoninergic syndrome, Shaken Baby Syndrome, Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, Ureterosigmoidostomy, Venomous snake bites, Venomous spider bites

Causes in Alphabetical Order


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