Dermatophytosis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Dermatophytosis Microchapters


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Differentiating Dermatophytosis from other Diseases

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


Dermatophytosis tends to get worse during summer, with symptoms alleviating during the winter. Skin medicines usually treat ringworm within 4 weeks. If the ringworm infection is severe or it does not respond well to self-care, it will usually respond quickly to antifungal pills.

Natural History

The symptoms of dermatophytosis usually develop in people living in low socio-economic, tropical and sub-tropical areas; where high humidity, excessive sweating, poor sanitation predispose individuals to superficial fungal infections. Patients may also present with a history of recent intake of immunosuppressive drugs, exposure to infected pets, diabetes mellitus or long-term use of occlusive footwear (for example athletes). If left untreated, dermatophytosis may lead to significant distress for the patient due to chronic pruritis and development of complications such as cellulitis, alopecia, bullous eruption on the area involved or disseminated infection.[1]1][2][3][4][5][6][7]


Complications that can develop as a result of dermatophytosis are:[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]


Dermatophytosis is associated with an excellent prognosis and early therapy leads to successful resolution of symptoms.[13][14][15]


  1. Ajello L (1974). "Natural history of the dermatophytes and related fungi". Mycopathol Mycol Appl. 53 (1): 93–110. PMID 4610379.
  2. Sonthalia S, Khurana R (2016). "Kerion". Indian J Pediatr. 83 (1): 94–5. doi:10.1007/s12098-015-1760-0. PMID 25947263.
  3. YOUNG JR, DEWOLFE VG (1960). "Recurrent lymphangitis of the leg associated with dermatophytosis. Report of 25 consecutive cases". Cleve Clin Q. 27: 19–24. PMID 13846637.
  4. Zullo TG (1971). "A factor analysis of perceptual and motor abilities of dental students". J Dent Educ. 35 (6): 356–61. PMID 5283510.
  5. Vinay K, Mahajan R, Sawatkar GU, Kanwar AJ, Kumar M (2013). "An unusual presentation of tinea cruris with bullous lesions". J Cutan Med Surg. 17 (4): 224–5. doi:10.2310/7750.2013.13004. PMID 23815953.
  6. Day MR, Day RD, Harkless LB (1996). "Cellulitis secondary to web space dermatophytosis". Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 13 (4): 759–66. PMID 8902342.
  7. Morrone A, Aldo M, Calcaterra R, Roberta C, Valenzano M, Mariacarla V, Fazio R, Raffaella F, Franco G, Gennaro F (2011). "Erythema nodosum induced by kerion celsi of the scalp in a woman". Mycoses. 54 (4): e237–9. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01844.x. PMID 20113399.
  8. Gulec AI, Uslu E, Başkan E, Yavuzcan G, Aliagaoglu C (2014). "Baboon syndrome induced by ketoconazole". Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 33 (4): 339–41. doi:10.3109/15569527.2013.870187. PMID 24641119.
  9. Méndez J, Sánchez A, Martínez JC (2002). "Urticaria associated with dermatophytosis". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 30 (6): 344–5. PMID 12464169.
  10. Romano C, Gaviria EM, Feci L, Fimiani M (2016). "Erythema nodosum complicating kerion of the scalp caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 30 (2): 357–9. doi:10.1111/jdv.12775. PMID 25303436.
  11. Subban SA, Kamalam A, Thambiah AS (1980). "Erythema multiforme in dermatophytosis". Mykosen. 23 (8): 452–5. PMID 6775223.
  12. Warycha MA, Leger M, Tzu J, Kamino H, Stein J (2011). "Deep dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum". Dermatol. Online J. 17 (10): 21. PMID 22031647.
  13. Rand S (2000). "Overview: The treatment of dermatophytosis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 43 (5 Suppl): S104–12. PMID 11044285.
  14. Degreef HJ, DeDoncker PR (1994). "Current therapy of dermatophytosis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 31 (3 Pt 2): S25–30. PMID 8077504.
  15. Rotta I, Otuki MF, Sanches AC, Correr CJ (2012). "Efficacy of topical antifungal drugs in different dermatomycoses: a systematic review with meta-analysis". Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 58 (3): 308–18. PMID 22735222.

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