# Joule

The **joule** (Template:PronEng or Template:IPA) (symbol: **J**) is the SI unit of energy. It was named after James Prescott Joule for his work on the relationship between heat, electricity and mechanical work.

## Description

One joule is the work done, or energy expended, by a force of one newton moving one meter along the direction of the force. This quantity is also denoted as a newton-meter with the symbol N·m. Note that torque also has the same units as work, but the quantities are not identical. In elementary units:

- <math>\, 1\, \mathrm{J}=1\, \mathrm{N} \cdot \mathrm{m}</math>

- <math>\, 1\, \mathrm{J}=1\, \mathrm{kg} \cdot \frac{\mathrm{m}^{2}}{\mathrm{s}^{2}}</math>

One joule is also:

- The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt, with the symbol C·V.
- The work done to produce power of one watt continuously for one second; or one watt second (compare kilowatt-hour), with the symbol W·s. Thus a kilowatt-hour is 3,600,000 joules or 3.6 megajoules

## History

A joule is the mechanical equivalent of heat meaning the number of units of work in which the unit of heat can perform.. Its value was found by James Prescott Joule in experiments that showed the mechanical energy Joule's equivalent, and represented by the symbol J. The term was first introduced by Dr. Mayer of Heilbronn.

## Conversions

1 joule is exactly 10^{7} ergs.

1 joule is approximately equal to:

- 6.24150636309 Template:E eV (electronvolts)
- 0.238845896628 cal (calorie) (small calories, lower case c)
- 2.390 Template:E kilocalorie, Calories (food energy, upper case C)
- 9.47817120313 Template:E BTU (British thermal unit)
- 0.737562149277 ft·lb
_{f}(foot-pound force) - 23.7 ft·pdl (foot poundals)
- 2.7778 Template:E kilowatt-hour
- 2.7778 Template:E watt-hour
- 9.8692 Template:E litre-atmosphere

Units defined in terms of the joule include:

- 1 thermochemical calorie = 4.184 J
- 1 International Table calorie = 4.1868 J
- 1 watt-hour = 3600 J
- 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 Template:E J (or 3.6 MJ)

Useful to remember:

- 1 joule = 1 newton-metre = 1 watt-second

1 joule in everyday life is approximately:

- the energy required to lift a small apple one meter straight up.
- the energy released when that same apple falls one meter to the ground.
- the amount of energy, as heat, that a quiet person produces every hundredth of a second.
- the energy required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1 degree Celsius.
- one hundredth of the energy a person can get by drinking a single drop of beer.

### SI multiples

## See also

- Conversion of units
- SI prefixes
- Orders of magnitude
- Orders of magnitude (energy)
- Electronvolt
- Watt-hour
- Fluence
- Foe

## References

- The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the changeover from calories to joules in nutrition.

## External links

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